Dual system estimation (DSE)

DSE is the method used to estimate the total population in a sample area by considering the number of people recorded by:

  • A: the census 
  • B: the Census Coverage Survey, and 
  • C: both the census and Census Coverage Survey

The dual system estimate (the estimate of the total population including people missed by both the census and the CCS) is calculated by A*B/C (A times B, divided by C). Dual System Estimation is also known as capture-recapture.


People are deprived if they lack the financial resources to provide the types of diet, clothing, housing, household facilities and fuel, and environmental, educational, working and social conditions, activities and facilities which are customary in the societies to which they belong.

Dependent child

A dependent child is any person aged 0 to 15 in a household (whether or not in a family) or a person aged 16 to 18 in full-time education and living in a family with his or her parent(s) or grandparent(s). It does not include any people aged 16 to 18 who have a spouse, partner or child living in the household.

Dependency/Dependency ratio

Dependency ratios provide simple summary measures of age composition, with respect to relative numbers of ‘dependent’ and ‘productive’ groups.

The ratios are typically based on a division of the age range into three broad, somewhat crude groupings: children, working ages and older people. For the purposes of Release 1A, the two dependency ratios used are:

  • the number of children aged under 15 per hundred people aged 15-64 (i.e. mainly those of working age); and
  • the number of people aged 65 or more per hundred of people aged 15-64.


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